To the neophyte, power coaching is simple: decide up a weight, put it down, get sturdy.
Spend a number of weeks or months on the web or chatting up your new fit-buddies, and also you come to comprehend there’s an entire lot of science, artwork, and jargon behind the obvious simplicity: compound workouts; plyometrics; supination; RPE; 1RM; ATG.
That can assist you determine what the gymnasium bros and health nerds are yapping about, we’ve put collectively a cheat-sheet of weightlifting phrases that breaks all of it down for you.
So subsequent time somebody recommends that you simply “Attempt to PR on the ultimate pyramid set of your compound actions the ultimate mesocycle earlier than deload,” you’ll know what they’re speaking about.
Ass to grass
A motion carried out in squat variations whereby the knees and hips flex absolutely, and the glutes are shut as potential to the ground. Typically abbreviated as ATG.
A sort of muscle contraction wherein a working muscle goes from a lengthened to a shortened place. In power coaching, it’s the a part of the transfer at which the burden (or your body weight) strikes upward, as within the ‘pushing’ portion of an overhead press.
A sort of muscle contraction wherein a working muscle goes from a shortened to a lengthened place. In power coaching, it’s the a part of the transfer at which the burden (or your body weight) strikes downward, as within the ‘reducing’ portion of an overhead press.
A motion, train, or drill that resembles, or helps to enhance, actions usually encountered in on a regular basis life. For example, carrying groceries or hoisting baggage into an overhead bin.
The capability to know, maintain, pinch, carry, and cling from objects of assorted shapes, sizes, and weights utilizing primarily the power of your fingers and arms.
Grip power is a element of many alternative gymnasium actions, together with farmer’s carries, rows, deadlifts, pull-downs, pull-ups, and, to a lesser extent, presses, and is taken into account an indicator of normal well being and a dependable predictor of longevity.
The act of extending, enjoyable, or releasing a muscle or muscle group. Within the ahead bend stretch, for instance, the hamstring muscle group on the backs of the thighs lengthens as you fold ahead.
Lifting to failure
Performing an train till you might be unable to finish one other repetition.
Technical failure refers to performing an train till you might be unable to finish one other full repetition with good type.
Absolute failure refers to performing the train till you possibly can now not transfer the burden in any respect, and often includes performing a number of partial repetitions — generally with the assistance of a coaching accomplice — till your muscular tissues are fully exhausted.
The act of turning your hand or foot upward or outward in order that the palm or sole is pointing up. In a dumbbell curl, supinating your hand as you elevate the burden leads to better rigidity in your biceps muscular tissues.
The time period additionally applies to the entire physique, when an train is carried out on one’s again (supine).
The act of turning your hand or foot downward or inward in order that the palm or sole is pointing down. The time period additionally applies to the entire physique, when an train is carried out on one’s abdomen or going through down (inclined).
Time below rigidity (TUT)
The time taken to finish all phases of a strength-training train, generally expressed as a four-digit quantity, with every digit referring to the time taken to finish a selected portion of the motion.
So a pushup with a 4210 tempo can be a set of pushups wherein you are taking 4 seconds to decrease your self in direction of the ground; two seconds holding the “down” place; one second to push your self again up, and 0 seconds — no time — within the “up” place. Every rep of the pushup would give your chest, shoulders, and triceps seven complete seconds below rigidity.
Gentle, straightforward motion carried out on non-exercise days — or between or after coaching classes on exercise days — supposed to stimulate circulation, relieve soreness, and improve restoration. Examples embrace foam rolling, straightforward swimming, strolling, stretching, dynamic warmups, and yoga.
A coaching block centered on constructing muscle mass, often involving heavy, compound workouts, further protein and energy, and a concentrate on relaxation exterior the gymnasium.
A coaching block centered on dropping fats, often involving diminished energy, continued concentrate on protein consumption and power coaching, and an emphasis on further low-intensity train exterior the gymnasium.
A brief interval — often per week — of diminished quantity and depth in a strength-training program, often following per week or extra of high-intensity and high-volume coaching.
A coaching fashion centered on finishing as many reps, units, and/or workouts as potential in a given time period. Instance: performing as many rounds as potential of 10 reps every of push-ups and squats in 10 minutes.
A set of a power coaching train carried out instantly after a number of medium to heavy units wherein you drastically cut back the burden used with a view to additional exhaust a muscle.
Gentle warmup strikes, carried out with body weight solely, to extend core temperature, loosen joints, enhance circulation, and cut back harm. Examples embrace excessive kicks, leaping jacks, and strolling lunges.
A coaching block or program wherein you’re employed all the main muscular tissues of the physique in every exercise.
The capability of a muscle to contract repeatedly below rigidity earlier than fatiguing.
The quantity of weight you might be able to lifting, for a single repetition at maximal depth, in a given strength-training train.
In power coaching (versus endurance coaching), understanding at a degree of quantity and/or depth from which you might be unable to get well from one exercise to the following.
Signs embrace elevated resting coronary heart fee, diminished coronary heart fee variability, lack of motivation, and hampered progress.
An strategy to coaching which focuses on totally different targets — power, energy, endurance, restoration — in coaching blocks lasting 4 to 12 weeks, all through the coaching yr.
An instance is the Tremendous Blocks idea, wherein you’re employed out in three-week blocks, every centered on a selected facet of health, separated by one-week deloads (see above).
The capability to precise power shortly. A 100-meter dash or a protracted soar are checks of energy. In physics, energy is expressed as power x acceleration, so the stronger you might be and the sooner you progress the extra highly effective you might be.
Jumps, throws, and calisthenics strikes designed to develop athletic explosiveness and energy, and improve power.
PR (Private report)
A person’s efficiency in a carry or different train that represents their greatest effort so far. Examples in power coaching might embrace performing extra pull-ups in a row than you’ve ever completed with out dropping from the bar, or lifting extra weight for a single repetition than you ever have in a deadlift.
Systematically growing the reps, weight, and/or quantity of a power coaching program over time with a view to enhance power, muscle mass, endurance, and different elements of health.
A power coaching technique wherein the burden will increase incrementally in an train over a number of units whereas repetitions inversely lower, usually culminating in a single all-out set of 5 or fewer reps.
A single cycle of a strength-training motion, together with — if relevant — reducing, lifting, and/or isometric holds.
A rep or group of reps of an train carried out in succession to extend some facet of health. Normally expressed together with the rep rely of the train, as in, “Three units of 10 reps,” or, merely, “3 x 10.”
Cut up coaching
Versus full-body coaching (see above) a break up program focuses on totally different muscle teams or actions on totally different days of the week, or days inside a cycle of exercises.
Some examples embrace “push-pull” wherein the lifter performs actions that contain pushing workouts on some days, and pulling workouts on others; “upper-lower,” wherein the lifter works higher physique some days and decrease on others, and “physique half splits,” wherein the lifter works only one or two particular person muscle teams — say, arms or again or legs — every exercise.
The flexibility to exert power to beat resistance. In physics, power is expressed as power x distance — so the extra power you possibly can exert, and farther you progress the resistance, the stronger you might be.
Alternating units of not less than two workouts, again to again, often to avoid wasting time, or to extend the workload on a given muscle group.
A variation of the usual periodization (see above) mannequin wherein you range the main target of the exercises inside the identical coaching block with a view to cut back stress, and create a stimulus for broader adaptation.
So, as a substitute of specializing in endurance for 4 weeks, hypertrophy for 4 weeks, and power for 4 weeks, you may carry out two endurance exercises, two hypertrophy exercises, and two power exercises every week for a six- or eight-week interval.
The entire quantity of labor carried out in a given exercise, week, or coaching block. Typically expressed as “weight lifted x units x reps,” however usually brief handed as “variety of working units.”
The constructing blocks of dietary protein, which type the uncooked supplies for muscle- and tissue-building inside the physique.
Anaerobic vs. cardio
In biology, cardio reactions are those who require oxygen, and anaerobic ones don’t. So, many trainers and exercisers confer with endurance actions (working, swimming, biking, and so forth.) as cardio, and power and energy actions (power coaching, sprinting) as anaerobic.
In fact, few if any bodily actions are purely one or the opposite; most actions lie on a spectrum someplace between the 2 extremes.
ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
The first gas that powers organic exercise within the physique. Vitality in meals (carbohydrate, fats) is transformed by means of metabolism into this power to carry out work.
Scientifically unproven coaching and dietary recommendation, usually delivered by individuals with few if any professional credentials, in individual or on social media.
EPOC (Extra post-exercise oxygen consumption)
The tendency for the physique to proceed burning power above your baseline metabolic fee after the conclusion of a exercise.
EPOC is considerably larger after high-intensity actions like sprints and circuit coaching than lower-intensity ones, however, opposite to some older analysis, not a serious contributor to caloric burn or fats loss.
An often-misunderstood and mischaracterized gas supply for muscle contraction, produced and burned throughout extended high-intensity power or endurance coaching.
RPE (Fee of perceived exertion)
A subjective scale, expressed as a quantity from six to twenty or one to 10, of how arduous an individual is working relative to their maximal capability.
The muscular tissues on the fronts of the higher arm, chargeable for flexing (bending) the elbow.
The “butt muscular tissues” on the backs of the hip joints chargeable for extending the hips.
Lats (latissimus dorsi)
The thick muscular tissues on the perimeters of the torso chargeable for drawing the arms again and down, and serving to to increase the decrease again.
The chest muscular tissues, chargeable for drawing your higher arms in direction of, and previous, your middle line.
The muscular tissues on the fronts of your thighs, chargeable for extending your knee joint.
The kite-shaped muscle in your higher again, chargeable for drawing your shoulder blades upwards, backwards, and downwards.
The muscular tissues on the backs of your higher arms, chargeable for extending (straightening) your elbows.
The act of transferring an arm or leg away from the middle line of the physique.
The act of transferring an arm or leg towards the middle line of the physique.
All metabolic actions that contain progress, or the assembling of smaller organic elements into bigger ones. Muscle progress, which includes the development of latest muscle tissue from amino acids, is one instance.
Muscle loss or breakdown.
A measurement or the proportion of physique fats in an individual relative to their total physique mass.
Muscle fiber sort
A means of categorizing the lengthy, parallel, hair-like fibers that comprise muscle tissue. (See additionally quick twitch and sluggish twitch).
Altering the relative proportion of physique fats and muscle tissue within the physique, with minimal change in complete physique mass.
Metabolic actions that contain breakdown, or the breaking of bigger organic elements into smaller ones. Fats loss, which includes the breaking of fats tissue into triglyceride gas, is one instance.
DOMS (Delayed onset muscle soreness)
Soreness in muscular tissues felt many hours — or generally days — following a tough train session.
A sort of muscle fiber, also referred to as sort II, that’s massive and lightweight in colour, and chargeable for quick, high-effort, high-exertion actions like all-out sprints and heavy lifts.
These are distinguished from slow-twitch, or sort I, fibers, that are slimmer and darker, and chargeable for slower, decrease effort actions like jogging and lighter, sooner lifts.
An imaginary middle line that bisects the physique vertically.
The psychological consciousness of the motion of your muscular tissues as they lengthen and contract, proven to enhance the effectiveness of a strength-training program.
A distinction within the relative power of muscular tissues on two sides of the physique or two sides of a joint, believed to play a job in posture and susceptibility to harm.
Vary of movement
The path and diploma to which a joint or a collection of joints transfer — or are able to transferring — in a selected train or stretch.
Lack of muscle mass stemming from illness, getting old, or disuse.